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Photosensitive epilepsies comprise a broad group of epilepsies in which seizures are provoked by light or pattern stimulation. Photosensitive seizures are the commonest type of reflex seizures which have been reported in 3-5% of all epilepsies. [1,2] Photosensitivity is defined as the presence of photoparoxysmal response(PPR) to intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) during EEG recording. The most commonly used classification system divides PPR into four different grades (Table 1) ranging from localized occipital spikes or spike-wave discharges (Grade I) to generalized spike or polyspike wave discharges (Grade IV, Fig.
Individuals presenting with Intellectual Disability (ID), Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) and epilepsy represent a particularly interesting clinical group. The co-occurrence of these conditions significantly interferes with both the clinical management and ongoing care arrangements for these individuals.
Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti-epileptic drug (AED) of demonstrated efficacy [1,2]. However, since the 1980s, numerous published studies have highlighted the association between intrauterine exposure to VPA and the risk of a major congenital malformation (MCM) and neurodevelopmental problems. The risk of MCMs has been estimated at around 11%, with it increasing to 25% for doses above 1450 mg/day [3]. In children with intrauterine exposure to VPA, there is also evidence of an 8-10 point reduction in intelligence quotient (IQ) [4,5] and a 6-15% increase in the risk of developing an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [6,7].
The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily presents with respiratory signs and symptoms. Nevertheless, a growing literature suggests that this condition may present with neurologic manifestations and/or complications, which include but are not limited to encephalopathy, seizures, meningoencephalitis, and cerebrovascular diseases (1,2). Patients with critical medical illnesses are known to be at risk for neurological complications like seizures and status epilepticus; however, the evidence is substantially limited in the context of COVID-19 infection (3).
Epilepsy is a variety of neurological disorders characterized predominantly by seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive and psychosocial consequences associated with the condition [1]. Children and adolescents with epilepsy (CAWE) are at risk of having a psychiatric disorder up to five times that of healthy controls [2]. Increased rates of anxiety and depression have been reported in both clinic-based and population-based studies [3–5]. Even children with self-limited epilepsies and average intelligence, or children who are seizure-free and off antiseizure medications (ASMs) have been reported to experience high rates of emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) [6].
Assessment of recurrence risk is fundamental after a first epileptic seizure. In general, the risk of recurrence is approximately 21–45 % in the next five years; brain disorders like trauma, infections and stroke increase the risk of recurrence, as do nocturnal seizures, imaging abnormalities, epileptiform activity on the electroencephalogram (EEG), or abnormal neurological examination [1,2]. Based on the risk assessment, patients may be counselled on safety or driving. In some circumstances, clinicians may also offer antiseizure medication (ASM) already after a first seizure.
Extracranial and intracranial neuromodulatory techniques have been used in an increasing frequency to treat patients with refractory epilepsy who are not good candidates for resective surgery. Three randomized clinical trials showed intracranial neuromodulation to be efficacious in patients with refractory epilepsy; one reported on anterior nucleus of the thalamus stimulation [1], one reported on the results of responsive neuromodulation [2], and a third one reported on the efficacy of hippocampal deep brain stimulation (DBS) [3].
The publisher regrets that a correction to the first sentence of the Materials and methods section of this article was missed during proofing. The corrected sentence should read:
Event Date: 
Monday 16 November 2015

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