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During pregnancy

Now you are pregnant

See your GP as soon as you find out you are pregnant. They can arrange speedy referrals to healthcare professionals such as a midwife, obstetrician, neurologist, epilepsy specialist nurse or doctor. To help with this process, the epilepsy maternity toolkit can be downloaded from: womenwithepilepsy.co.uk/pregnancy-toolkit

As you will be supported by a number of different healthcare professionals, the toolkit should list emergency contact details of your team. It should also have a summary of your epilepsy, treatment and your management plan.

Around one in every three women with epilepsy will have seizures during their pregnancy. This can be due to things like their type of epilepsy, whether they are taking their medicine as prescribed, or lack of sleep.

Some women might have seizures because the level of their epilepsy medicine in their blood fluctuates during pregnancy. So, some epilepsy specialists recommend that you have regular blood tests if you are taking certain epilepsy medicines. They will take account of the type of epilepsy you have, your previous seizure control, and the dose of your medicines. It’s up to you to decide whether you want these blood tests.

If your seizures change while you are pregnant, ask your GP or epilepsy specialist for a prompt review of your epilepsy medicine.

Taking your epilepsy medicine during pregnancy

It’s really important not to stop taking your epilepsy medicine during pregnancy, unless your doctor advises you to do this. If you suddenly stop taking your medicine, it could cause you to have more frequent or more severe seizures. It could even put your life at risk.

If I have seizures during pregnancy will it harm my baby?

There’s no evidence that focal seizures, myoclonic seizures, or absence seizures will harm your baby. But during a tonic-clonic seizure your baby could get less oxygen in the womb. This could be harmful to your baby, particularly if you have frequent tonic-clonic seizures, or have status epilepticus. Tonic-clonic status epilepticus is when a tonic-clonic seizure lasts for five minutes or more, or when you have one tonic-clonic seizure after another without regaining consciousness in between.

Some seizures, particularly tonic-clonic seizures, can put you at risk of injury. A significant injury to your abdomen could cause bleeding or your waters to break. Although the risk is low, this could lead to infection and early labour.

Epilepsy Action has more information about seizure types and status epilepticus.

Could pregnancy be dangerous for me?

Most women, including women with epilepsy, have healthy pregnancies. But in all pregnancies there’s a very small risk that the mother could die. If you have epilepsy, this risk is increased. There may be many possible reasons for this, including not having enough epilepsy medicine in the body, or not taking epilepsy medicine as prescribed. This can cause uncontrolled seizures, which increases the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

Uncontrolled seizures can also increase the risk of death through accidents, such as drowning. For anyone who has seizures, there are ways to reduce the risk of drowning while bathing:

  • Have a shower instead of a bath - it’s safer because the water runs away
  • If a shower isn’t possible, keep the water depth shallow and turn off the taps before you get in or
  • Don’t put the plug in, but sit in the bath with the water running from the taps or a shower attachment

Epilepsy Action has more information about SUDEP and safety.

Ways to lower the risks of having seizures when you are pregnant

You might not notice a change in the number of seizures you have during your pregnancy - most women don’t. But here are some ways you might lower the risk of having seizures:

  • Keep taking your epilepsy medicine exactly as prescribed by your doctor
  • If you have sickness and can’t keep your epilepsy medicine down, speak to your GP or epilepsy specialist nurse as soon as possible
  • Talk to your GP, epilepsy specialist or epilepsy specialist nurse about any seizures you have. They might be able to make changes to your epilepsy medicine, to try to reduce your seizures
  • Try to get enough rest and sleep. Some people are more at risk of having seizures if they are tired, or haven’t had enough sleep

What scans and tests will I need during pregnancy?

All women are offered scans and blood tests during pregnancy. Some of these are used to check the mother’s health, others are to check the baby’s health and growth.

You probably won’t need any extra tests while you are pregnant, just because you have epilepsy. But if you start having more seizures, or your seizures change, your epilepsy specialist might do blood tests. This is to find out if the level of your epilepsy medicine in your blood has dropped. If it has, they might suggest you take a higher dose.

You will be offered a mid-pregnancy ultrasound scan between weeks 18 and 22 of your pregnancy. Ultrasound scans can help detect things such as a hole in the heart or cleft palate. You will also be offered a blood test to show the risk of your baby having spina bifida.

It’s up to you whether you want to have screening tests to check your baby’s health and development. You might choose to have all the tests, or to have some tests, but not others. The screening tests occasionally identify an abnormality which needs further investigation to check on what impact it will have on your baby’s life. If this happens, the doctor will give you all the information you need to help you make decisions about what to do next.

If you need further support, or help to make decisions, the maternity team will tell you about the most appropriate support groups or services available. 

If you would like to see this information with references, visit the Advice and Information references section of our website. If you are unable to access the internet, please contact our Epilepsy Action Helpline freephone on 0808 800 5050.

Code: 
B112.09

Epilepsy Action would like to thank Kim Morley Epilepsy Specialist Midwife  for her contribution to this information.

Kim Morley has no conflict of interest.

This information has been produced under the terms of The Information Standard.

  • Updated May 2019
    To be reviewed May 2020

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